Wave Washer Springs
Wave washers have a curvilinear shape and can be made from different raw materials – spring steel, stainless steel, and copper. The wave design of the wave washer counterbalances for the spring force and this is done by deflecting the load and acting as a spring. Wave washer springs are a preload between two surfaces.
The spring rate produced in the wave washer equals to the number of waves in the spring design raised to the fourth power. Based on the need, the number of waves made in the spring can vary.
The spring rate indicates the capacity of the washer whilst describing the relationship between the applied load and the deflection of the washer. With the increase in the number of waves in the washer design its capacity increases. The capacity of the wave washer depends on its thickness. An increase in thickness will increase the load capacity and decrease the spring rate.
Wave washers can be stacked to decrease the spring rate and increase the collective deflection in the stack. Wave washers exhibit a linear spring deflection feature and can be used to attain a maximum deflection of 80%.
Types Of Wave Washers
Single-turn wave washer –
This wave washer design contains a single wave in it. Single-turn wave washers should be separated by a shim to produce a crest-to-crest wave spring.
Multi-turn Wave Washer –
Multi-turn wave washers are good to be used to minimize the use of axial space and are suitable for applications needing large deflections and a small spring rate.
Nested wave washer –
Nested wave washers are suitable for situations with a need for high and accurate spring force.
Wave washers are used for load-bearing and deflection range. They have a load rating to define their operational limit. The applied load is the stress, causing some amount of strain in the washer. The axial strain is a function of the load, referred to as deflection, and described by a spring rate.
Applications Of Wave Washer
Shock Absorbers – Wave washers absorb shocks or maintain the load. Wave washers are commonly used as cushion spacers between parts on the shaft. They are also widely used in smartwatches, home appliances, as compensators, shock absorbers, ball bearings, as a cost-saving replacement to disc springs, etc.
Preload Bearings – Single-turn wave washer is good for bearing preload for medium forces and short deflection. These are the best load-bearing washers available that help in the functioning of ball bearings, improve the performance of ball bearings, and lengthen its life.
Compensators for Dimensional Variations – Wave washers can aid in operational disparities of machines and act as a compensator for these machines preventing any unwanted vibrations or unwanted movements happening as a result of misalignments.
Keeps the machine parts together – When used with bolts and screws, wave washers help in preventing any loss of friction that can result in pieces getting unattached or falling out.